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Spain won a major victory is a long court battle against Florida based Odyssey salvage company




The history of the Spanish frigate Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes includes two grievances and one victory. The first of the former was when the British Navy sunk it and its 275 crew members on October 5, 1804, off Portugal’s Algarve coast. The second offense came in May 2007, when the US treasure-hunting company Odyssey Marine Exploration scooped up its cargo of 500,000 silver and gold coins from the shipwreck at the bottom of the sea. In order to conceal the origin of the treasure, the company used the code name Black Swan for the recovery project.

Triumph came when the US justice system confirmed that the treasure belonged to Spain, in a ruling released in February 2012. But there was one more affront to come: a Spanish court has just definitively shelved a case into alleged crimes committed by the US treasure hunters as they were removing the coins. After a tortuous 14-year investigation, a courtroom in Cádiz has been left with no option but to let the probe die, albeit admitting its “bafflement” and “anger” over what it considers “unusual proceedings.”

At the same time as the legal process began in Florida to determine who was the rightful owner of the rescued treasure, Odyssey or Spain, a court in La Línea de la Concepción, in the southwestern Spanish province of Cádiz, began investigating whether the then-CEO of Odyssey Marine Exploration, Greg Stemm, and his team had committed any criminal offenses when they removed the haul from the shipwreck. Among the potential crimes were damaging an archeological site and smuggling. [If in time of conflict, something for Blue Shield]









The fact that the 500,000 pieces of silver and gold were returned to Spain in February 2012 – nearly 17 tons of material, which are now held in the ARQUA underwater archeology museum in Cartagena – is proof that the legal battle in the United States ended well for Spain. But the latest decision in the Spanish case, to which EL PAÍS has had access, leaves no doubt that the investigation into potential crimes has definitively been shipwrecked.

The three judges who were responsible for the case found that the shelving, which cannot be appealed, is based principally on the fact that the potential offenses have now exceeded the statute of limitations in Spain for trial. And the slow process of the probe, according to the judges’ writ, was due to the failure of the US justice system to respond to the letters rogatory sent in 2013, and that were needed if Stemm and the rest of the suspects were to be questioned by investigators.

“In terms of the lawsuit over the coins, the United States was on Spain’s side,” explains Ángel Núñez, a public prosecutor who specializes in cultural heritage and who was in charge of the case until 2009. “But it is true that when it comes to targeting one of their own nationals, they are not so willing to collaborate. And given that these were US citizens who are not at the disposal of the Spanish courts…”

The Spanish court probe into Odyssey had already entered into a tailspin before this latest ruling. In December 2016, another judge in La Línea dismissed the case. The private prosecution, which was brought by the company Nerea Arqueología Subacuática, appealed the decision but it was rejected. In a new attempt to not let the legal process die, archeologist Javier Noriega, one of the heads of this small company based in Málaga, took the case to the High Court of Cádiz province, in La Línea, the one that has definitively shelved the proceedings.

In their ruling, the judges add that they share “with the appellant his surprise, confusion and even anger for the, shall we call it, unusual proceedings with this case, at least since the year 2013.” The magistrates do not go so far as to specify what prompted them to feel this way.

Archeologist Javier Noriega believes that he knows all too well what they are referring to. He and his colleagues decided to take up the case – represented by the attorney José María Lancho – as a “professional and moral obligation.” They have since seen how “all of these years can be summed up by the end: exceeding the statute of limitations.” “They avoided entering into the substance of what happened to Spain’s cultural heritage,” the expert complains.

These unusual proceedings in the investigation which the judges mention and that Noriega suffered first-hand were reported on in the Spanish press. In March 2012, a former legal representative for Odyssey, with no authority, entered the courtroom when the judge was absent and persuaded court workers to photocopy the entire findings of the legal investigation so far, as was reported by the Spanish daily Abc at the time. According to Abc, such an action would have allowed Odyssey to prepare a defense against the findings of Civil Guard investigators and decide whether or not to actually take part in the trial.

The actions of the representative were very serious, taking into account that the probe was counting on a protected witness: a diver who had been threatened for having denounced Odyssey, given that he had knowledge of some of its activities in Spanish waters.

Now Noriega, 46, is gloomy about the end of a process that has occupied a significant part of his career. “As people who love our profession, it’s frustrating,” he explains. “It ends up being a defeat for all of us, for culture and for society. And if as well as that, the person responsible has gone unpunished, because of the statute of limitations, that’s very sad.”








Despite the legal setback, the archeologist argues that the court probe contains “evidence of all kinds, archeological, from witnesses, technical, juridical, and a ton of resounding questions that deal with what supposedly happened with an overwhelming truthfulness.”

The expert believes that an opportunity has been missed by Europe to convey “a clear message to the thieves who have spent years destroying the history of those shipwrecks from the modern era all over the world.”

Odyssey Marine Exploration never had any interest in the Spanish frigate beyond the cargo of silver and gold that it was carrying. That was made clear by the destruction caused by the company in the archeological area where the remains of the 275 people killed in the attack in 1804 lay. “When an archeological site is plundered, it is destroyed forever,” states Noriega.

After the site was looted, ARQUA led a scientific excavation that was carried out in three campaigns – from 2015 to 2017 – in which the remains of the shipwreck were documented and the items that the treasure hunters left behind were removed. These included cannon, cutlery and other everyday objects from life on board. The expedition also achieved the challenge of descending 1,130 meters underwater, the maximum depth achieved until that point during a subaquatic arqueological mission by a European country.

While the damage done to a historical site such as the Mercedes shipwreck will not result in a trial or convictions, Núñez believes that the consequences of the process “were positive, from a legal and global point of view.” Noriega goes even further: “Spain and its coasts are, today, possibly the best protected and safest in the world with regard to the protection of cultural heritage against looting.”

Since the Odyssey case, the classification of offenses against historical heritage in Spain has improved, new archeological maps have been created, there is better coordination between administrations, and there is greater social awareness about this kind of offense. It was precisely these weaknesses that the treasure-hunting company Odyssey made use of to make off with the coins. In fact, the activity has presumably lost its appeal not just in Spain but also elsewhere, given that the American company has since abandoned its treasure-hunting activities and is now focusing on underground mining.

If Odyssey wants to continue exploring for sunken vessels, it now has little option but to hire its services out to governments interested in recovering the contents of shipwrecks. The legal wrangle has robbed the company of any credibility among marine archeologists, who are deeply suspicious of its for-profit motive.










MADRID, Spain CNN — Spain has won a major victory in its long court battle with a Florida-based deep-sea salvage company over rights to an estimated $500 million in silver and gold coins, officials said Wednesday.

The treasure was recovered in 2007 from a 19th century sunken ship off the Spanish coast.

The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta on Tuesday turned aside another motion from the U.S.-based company, Odyssey Marine Exploration, and Spanish officials said they now expect the coins – nearly 600,000 of them – to arrive in Spain soon.

“With the ruling by the appeals court, the process begins to recover all of the coins taken illegally” from the sunken ship, Spain’s Culture Ministry said in a statement. Spain treasure dispute nears end.

Odyssey, which can still appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, said in a statement, “Currently, no final order has been issued in the case and it would be premature to comment at this time.”









The battle royal began after Odyssey announced in 2007 it had found the sunken treasure. It quickly laid claim to the coins, put them in crates and said it flew them to a discreet, well-guarded location in the United States.

Spain soon filed suit in a federal court in Tampa, Florida, also claiming the treasure.

Spain says its navy warship Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes was carrying the coins. The Mercedes, a 34-gun frigate, left Peru in 1804 and crossed the Atlantic to within a day’s sail from Spain when British ships attacked the Spanish fleet.

In the ensuing Battle of Cape St. Mary, south of Portugal, the Mercedes exploded after being hit in its power magazine, according to the Spanish government’s filing to the Florida court.

The federal court in Tampa in 2009 ruled in favor of Spain’s claim to the treasure, but Odyssey took the case to the federal appeals court in Atlanta, which ruled last September to uphold the lower court’s ruling.

At the end of that 53-page ruling, the three-judge appeals panel wrote, “For the foregoing reasons, the district court did not err when it ordered Odyssey to release the recovered” items to the custody of Spain, according to a copy of the order viewed by CNN.

Since then, Odyssey has filed various motions at the appeals court to overturn or delay the ruling, said James Goold, a Washington, D.C., lawyer who is representing Spain in the case.

But on Tuesday, the appeals court denied an Odyssey motion, the court’s chief deputy clerk, Amy Nerenberg, told CNN by phone from Atlanta.

Goold, who spoke to CNN by phone from Washington, said it appears that Odyssey’s only possible appeal now would be to the U.S. Supreme Court. That court agrees to hear only a tiny portion of the cases presented to it.

The appeals court is expected to send the case in the coming days back to the federal court in Tampa, which would establish and supervise the procedures for sending the coins to Spain, Goold said.







Spain believes that the main part of the nearly 600,000 coins are currently in Florida, Goold said.

Spain’s Culture Minister, Jose Ignaico Wert, told CNN in Madrid on Wednesday that the case was never really about the money.

“We’re not going to use this money for purposes other than artistic exhibition, but this is something that enriches our material, artistic capital and it has to be appreciated as such,” Wert said in an interview.

He said the coins would be exhibited in Spanish museums.

Peru has also followed this case. The silver and gold came from Latin America when Peru was a Spanish colony.

“Formally, they haven’t claimed anything, but we are completely open to consider the possibility of distributing some part of the treasure also among the Latin American museums,” Wert said.

The treasure includes a vast trove of coins, included fabled “pieces of eight,” some minted in 1803 in Lima, Peru, Spanish officials said at a 2008 news conference.

The treasure already has crossed the Atlantic ocean twice – by ship in 1804 and then by plane in the other direction just a few years ago. Spanish officials hope it might finally arrive now for the first time on the Spanish mainland. 









In this fictional series of nautical adventures, our marine conservationist, John Storm, discovers a wreck believed to have belonged to Henry Morgan, privateer, but unsubstantiated. On that wreck John discovers a haul of gold and silver. And chests full of precious stones; diamonds, rubies, emeralds and others laden with pearls.


Though Hal, the AI on the Elizabeth Swann, notes the position of the wreck carefully, John does not have a record of that location in his written Ship's Log. According to marine salvage law, he is under no obligation to disclose any information as to the contents of a vessel that he cannot be sure of. Indeed, John does not have time to try and locate the rightful owner(s) of any part of the cargo, let alone conduct a detailed inventory, to even begin such a mammoth task. Even the ownership of the sunken vessel is not known for sure. And John did not conduct a dive survey, by himself, or working with any other organization.


John had contacted several nations with a view to them helping fund excavations and recovery should he find the lost treasure of any pirate operating in the Caribbean. These communications including negotiations for a finders fee, under treasure trove law. But, those nations refused to reciprocate. Instead, they demanded information from him, and tried to board his ship in international waters. To no avail, the Swann is designed to repel all unauthorized personnel, thanks to his Wizard uncle, Professor Storm.


Regardless of the legal obstacles, several claims are filed against the adventurer, by Jamaica, Panama, Spain and United Kingdom, by way of SLAPP actions, hoping to get lucky, but none can be substantiated. The Courts eventually ruling in favour of John Storm, and their claims struck out as being worthless, the Claimant's demonstrating no Locus Standi, when challenged. John vanquishes the pretenders, with the able assistance of George Franks, of Swindles & Gentry, Solicitors, Melbourne & Australia. The Court awards substantial sums to be paid to John Storm, against what can only be described as a prosecution laden with malicious intent, by way of a Wasted Costs Order. Court's do not like time wasters, or those who abuse due process. Nobody is above the law!






Divers surveying the 'Satisfaction' - Henry Morgan's flagship, discovered in 2011













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