R O B E R T  G U I S C A R D 'THE CRAFTY' 1015 - 1085



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At some point in our lives we will all feel strongly about an issue, enough to take arms (action).





Robert Guiscard (c. 1015-1085 CE) was a Norman knight who fought with success against the Byzantine and Arab Empires from 1057 CE to create his own duchy in southern Italy and Sicily. Robert's territorial claims were endorsed by the papacy in 1059 CE which recognised his title of the Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. He extended his control of Italy when he captured Bari in 1071 CE after a three-year siege, Palermo in 1072 CE and Salerno in 1076 CE. 






Crafty as a Fox - Norman Knight, Robert Guiscard





Still not satisfied, Robert grabbed Corfu in 1081 CE and shortly after defeated an army led by the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118 CE) at Dyracchion, Dalmatia. 1084 CE saw Robert win a victory against a Venetian force, the powerful allies of the Byzantines. Ever ambitious, the Norman duke died on his way to attack the biggest prize of all, Constantinople, in 1085 CE, not in battle but from typhoid. His nickname of 'the Crafty' derives from his surname's relation to the Old French word viscart, meaning 'wily as a fox'. The Italian writer Dante Alighieri has Sir Robert as one of the great knights in his Divine Comedy (c. 1310 CE).




Saint George is based on a soldier in the Roman army who was martyred in 303 CE (Patron saint of knights)
Sir Galahad - Knight of the Round Table 12-15th century CE literature (King Arthur legend)
Siegfried - Brunhilde & King Gunter (Kriemhild, Burgundian [Nibelung] princess) c. 1200 CE


Robert Guiscard - 'The Crafty' (c. 1015-1085 CE) [Norman]
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar - 'El Cid' (1043-1099 CE)
Godfrey of Bouillon - The Swan Knight (circa 1060-1100)
Sir William Marshal - 'The Greatest Knight that Ever Lived' (c. 1146-1219 CE)
Richard I - 'The Lionhearted' (1157-1199 CE) King of England from 1189 to 1199 CE
Sir William Wallace - Braveheart (c. 1270-1305 CE)
Sir James Douglas - 'The Black Douglas' (c. 1286-1330 CE)
Bertrand du Guesclin - 'The Eagle of Brittany' (c. 1320-1380 CE)
Edward of Woodstock - 'The Black Prince' [of Wales] (1330-1376 CE) 
Sir Henry Percy - 'Hotspur' (1364-1403 CE)  












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