R I C H A R D  T H E  L I O N H E A R T 1157 - 1199



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At some point in our lives we will all feel strongly about an issue, enough to take arms (action).




Richard I of England 'the Lionhearted' or Cur de Lion (1157-1199 CE) was the king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. Richard's first success came in the 1180's CE when he quashed a baron's rebellion in Aquitaine and then captured the seemingly impregnable castle of Taillebourg in western France. Garnering the support of two French kings and egged on by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard twice rebelled against his father King Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) as the complex royal intermarriages of the period caused nothing but squabbles. Matters were settled when Richard was officially nominated as his father's successor, which he became in 1189 CE.

One of the leaders of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE), Richard lived up to his courageous nickname by capturing Messina (1190 CE) and Cyprus (1191 CE). Acre in the kingdom of Jerusalem had been under siege for five months but was finally captured in 1191 CE by Richard just five weeks after his arrival. Ill with scurvy at the time, the 'Lionhearted' had his men carry him around on a stretcher anyway, from which position he could fire his crossbow. In September of the same year, the king won another victory against the Arab army of Saladin (r. 1174-1193 CE) at Arsuf. Ultimately, the Crusade petered out and Jerusalem still remained in Arab hands, but at least Richard negotiated the safe passage of Christian pilgrims to the Holy Lands.






Richard the Lionhearted - Crusader King of England





The king was the epitome of the fighting monarch but only managed to spend five months of his reign in England, a big factor in that statistic being his capture by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (r. 1190-1197 CE) in 1192 CE. Ransomed after two years and still draining the state coffers to their very bottom, Richard then fought against Philip II of France as the two countries wrestled over control of northern and central France. The English king was killed by an arrow while laying siege to the castle of Chlus. The three lions of Richard's coat of arms have been part of the British royal family's arms ever since.




Saint George is based on a soldier in the Roman army who was martyred in 303 CE (Patron saint of knights)
Sir Galahad - Knight of the Round Table 12-15th century CE literature (King Arthur legend)
Siegfried - Brunhilde & King Gunter (Kriemhild, Burgundian [Nibelung] princess) c. 1200 CE


Robert Guiscard - 'The Crafty' (c. 1015-1085 CE) [Norman]
Rodrigo Daz de Vivar - 'El Cid' (1043-1099 CE)
Godfrey of Bouillon - The Swan Knight (circa 1060-1100)
Sir William Marshal - 'The Greatest Knight that Ever Lived' (c. 1146-1219 CE)
Richard I - 'The Lionhearted' (1157-1199 CE) King of England from 1189 to 1199 CE
Sir William Wallace - Braveheart (c. 1270-1305 CE)
Sir James Douglas - 'The Black Douglas' (c. 1286-1330 CE)
Bertrand du Guesclin - 'The Eagle of Brittany' (c. 1320-1380 CE)
Edward of Woodstock - 'The Black Prince' [of Wales] (1330-1376 CE) 
Sir Henry Percy - 'Hotspur' (1364-1403 CE) 












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